Orléans, Philippe, duke d'

   1) (1640-1701) (Monsieur)
   brother of Louis XIV
   Born at Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Philippe, duke d'Orléans was the second son of King louis x III and Queen anne of Austria and brother of King louis XIV. He was called Monsieur, and his first marriage was to Henriette-Anne of England. His second marriage was to Charlotte Elisabeth of Bavaria, princess of the Palatinate, with whom he had a son (also named philippe, duke d'orléans), who later became regent for King louis XV. The elder duke d'orléans was known for his open homosexuality, especially in his relationship with the chevalier de Lorraine, and for his military bravery in war (especially at the Battle of Cassel, 1677).
   2) (1674-1723)
   Regent for Louis XV
   Born at Saint-Cloud, Philippe, duke d'Orléans, who served as regent under louis XV, was the son of philippe, duke of Orleans (the brother of louis XIV) and Charlotte Elisabeth of Bavaria and, at first, was known by the title of duke of Chartres. Under the influence of his tutor, Cardinal Guillaume dubois, he married Mlle de Blois, the daughter of louis XIV and Mme de montespan. He proved himself early in his career to be a capable military officer, particularly at Neerwinden, and in Spain (Aragon, Catalonia), and led the successful capture of Lerida (1707-08). However, he was accused of plotting to seize the Spanish throne and was exiled from court. Meanwhile, Louis XIV, in his last will, named the duke of Maine to be regent for Louis XV during his minority. But in 1715 this provision was overturned by the Parlement of Paris, and Philippe d'orléans became regent instead. The rigid ceremony and piety of the last days of the court of Louis XIV was replaced with an atmosphere of moral relaxation, informality, and religious skepticism. Much was a reaction to the rigor imposed by Mme de maintenon. The upper aristocracy, for which the duke de saint-simon is considered the spokesperson, took its revenge also, attempting to limit the powers that she had exercised (1718). The Parlement, too, gained the right of remonstrance, and it was this concession that would impede the monarchy for the rest of the 18th century. it was at first a handicap for the regent. intelligent but lazy and debauched, he would come face to face with an especially critical financial situation (1719) when he made john law comptroller general of the kingdom. The regent's foreign policy, planned by Cardinal dubois, was often guided by his efforts to secure the succession in the event of Louis XV's death.

France. A reference guide from Renaissance to the Present . 1884.

Look at other dictionaries:

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